Turritellid Species Database
This database includes all species and subspecies names of which I am aware proposed in the subfamily Turritellinae (sensu Marwick 1957) in Cretaceous and Cenozoic deposits and the Recent, worldwide, and first and last reported stratigraphic occurrences for taxa represented by these names. It thus includes species and subspecies proposed in the 42 "genera" listed in the table below. The dataset contains a total of 1,646 species or subspecies names. The majority of these have not been critically evaluated systematically in recent times and the database makes no attempt to judge validity.
Stratigraphic resolution for these names is at the stage level where possible (approximately 60% of the names used in the analysis), and otherwise at the epoch.
Any attempt to assess species-level Cretaceous and Cenozoic diversity history of turritellines must confront several major challenges (see Allmon 1996 for further discussion). First, the history of systematics in the group goes back about as far as you can go, to the type species of the genus Turritella Lamarck 1799, Turbo terebra Linnaeus 1758, and has been added to by hundreds of workers in numerous languages in varying levels of detail ever since. Second, despite this long history of study, compared to their abundance and geographic and stratigraphic distribution, turritellines are woefully understudied systematically. Some of the most species-rich turritelline faunas (based on published names) have not been studied in a century or more, and we know very little about phylogenetic relationships. Third, we do not know enough about ranges of intraspecific variation in living turritellines, and so we have inadequate data for comparison with fossil species. Finally, stratigraphic resolution is a significant challenge, especially for materials collected and taxa described in the nineteenth century, but also for collections made and species described as recently as 30 years ago. Analysis of Cretaceous species is a particular challenge, because there are likely many still-undescribed species in several areas of the world, including the Western Interior of North America (E. Kaufman, pers. comm.) and central Asia (Allmon, unpublished), among others.
Despite these obstacles, a species-level approach to turritellines as a whole appears to be useful, for at least the following reasons: 1) turritellines are among the most easily recognized of fossil gastropods, which means that they are likely to be described or at least noted when present, even by non-specialists; 2) although turritellines have clearly been the victims of occasionally exuberant over-splitting (e.g., de Gregorio 1890; Sacco 1895; Ellisor 1918), most of which has yet to be cleaned up by modern revision, total diversity of the group as represented by described species names may nevertheless not be seriously overestimated because in almost all faunas that have been studied recently, new species continue to be described even as others are synonymized (e.g., Allison and Adegoke 1969; Dockery 1980; MacNeil and Dockery 1984; Titova 1994a,b; Allmon 1996).
Species described in the following genera and subgenera of the family Turritellidae are included in the dataset.
Allison, R.C., and O.S. Adegoke. 1969. The Turritella rina group (Gastropoda) and its relationship to Torcula Gray. Journal of Paleontology 43: 1248-1266.
Allmon, W.D.1996. Systematics and evolution of Cenozoic American Turritellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) I: Paleocene and Eocene coastal plain species related to Turritella mortoni Conrad and Turritella humerosa Conrad. Palaeontographica Americana 59: 1-134.
Dockery, D.T., III. 1980. The invertebrate macropaleontology of the Clarke County, Mississippi area. Mississippi Geological Survey Bulletin 122: 1-387.
Ellisor, A.C. 1918. Species of Turritella from the Buda and Georgetown limestones of Texas. University of Texas Bulletin 1840: 1-18, 4 pl.
de Gregorio, A. 1890. Monographie de la Faune-éocènique de lAlabama et surtout de celle de Claiborne de létage Parisien (Horizon à Venericardia planicosta Lamk.). Annales de Géologie et Paléontologie, livr. 7-8, 316 pp., 46 pl.
MacNeil, F.S., and D.T. Dockery, III. 1984. Lower Oligocene Gastropoda, Scaphopoda, and Cephalopoda of the Vicksburg Group in Mississippi. Mississippi Geological Survey Bulletin 124: 1-415.
Marwick, J. 1957. Generic revision of the Turritellidae. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 32: 144-166.
Sacco, F. 1895. I Molluschi dei terreni Terziarii del Piemonte edella Liguria. Parte XIX (Turritellidae e Mathididae), 42 p. 3 pl.
Titova, L. 1994a. A revision of the Paleogene turritellids (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Kamchatka. Paleontological Journal 28(1):48-66.
_____. 1994b. Revision of the Neogene Turritellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Kamchatka. Ruthenica 4(1): 1-20.